Thursday, September 5, 2013

Mathematical Proof That Cooperative, Forgiving and Generous Populations Succeed In The Long-Term While Selfish Ones Fail


Thanks to R. for this article!

This is fascinating information that explains several things happening today societally, on a more global scale.  

The only long term societal structures that can succeed are Generous ones.  Mathematically, and I would postulate psychologically, this means cooperation and reciprocity are more powerful than extortion, over time, in large populations.  This is how nature succeeds as well!  

If our nature is to be generous to succeed, as a universal truism it should be provable in all ways, including mathematically.   Apparently this is the case.  

Perhaps our politicians would be wise to take note.  Their people are suffering at home in increasingly larger groups.  Is it time to devote resources to the citizenry, that is easily spent elsewhere these days by our elected officials in the billions?  Remember when hurricane Sandy's victims were denied funding by a Senator for being too expensive to care for?   This person now wants to allocate billions in an overeseas venture that has no winners.  This is old thinking, evolutionarily, it is becoming more extinct as the days and years roll by.

Overall, good news for the evolving planet, and it's people!

excerpts:
It quickly became clear to the Penn biologists that extortion strategies wouldn't do well if played within a large, evolving population because an extortion strategy doesn't succeed if played against itself.

"You might think being generous would be a stupid thing to do, and it is if there are only two players in the game, but, if there are many players and they all play generously, they all benefit from each other's generosity."

In generous strategies, which are essentially the opposite of extortion strategies, players tend to cooperate with their opponents, but, if they don't, they suffer more than their opponents do over the long term. "Forgiveness" is also a feature of these strategies.

Plotkin said. "It's not just in humans. Of course social insects behave this way, but even bacteria and viruses share gene products and behave in ways that can't be described as anything but generous."

http://goo.gl/ChPFxZ


September 5, 2013 BY MICHAEL FORRESTER
Mathematical Proof That Cooperative, Forgiving and Generous Populations Succeed In The Long-Term While Selfish Ones Fail

War is the epitome of a selfish and power hungry mentality that destroys the true spirit of humanity. University of Pennsylvania biologists offer a mathematically based explanation for why cooperation, forgiveness, altruism and generosity succeed in the long-term benefit of populations where selfish and disharmonious intentions fail.

Their work builds upon the seminal findings of economist John Nash, who advanced the field of game theory in the 1950s, as well as those of computational biologist William Press and physicist-mathematician Freeman Dyson, who last year identified a new class of strategies for succeeding in the classical game theory match-up known as the "Prisoner's Dilemma."

Postdoctoral researcher Alexander J. Stewart and associate professor Joshua B. Plotkin, both of Penn's Department of Biology in the School of Arts and Sciences, examined the outcome of the Prisoner's Dilemma as played repeatedly by a large, evolving population of players. While other researchers have previously suggested that cooperative strategies can be successful in such a scenario, Stewart and Plotkin offer mathematical proof that the only strategies that succeed in the long term are generous ones. They report their findings in this week's issue in PNAS.

Dr. David De Cremer of Maastricht University in the Netherlands and New York University in New York previously found that leaders can inspire cooperation in group members if they simply treat everyone fairly, and give group members a voice in decision making.

"These types of leader characteristics are able to influence people's motives in such a way that they no longer care only about their self-interests, but also the goals of the group and the organization," a transition that is crucial to the success of the entire group, de Cremer stated.

Understanding Why Cooperation and Generosity Win
"Ever since Darwin," Plotkin said, "biologists have been puzzled about why there is so much apparent cooperation, and even flat-out generosity and altruism, in nature. The literature on game theory has worked to explain why generosity arises. Our paper provides such an explanation for why we see so much generosity in front of us."

"Last year William Press and I proposed the 'extortion strategy' in the game of Prisoner's Dilemma, enabling one player to maintain a dominant position over the other," said Dyson, who is retired as a professor of physics at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton, N.J. "One year later, Stewart and Plotkin turned our strategy upside down and showed that it enables one player to coax the other gently toward collaboration. They understood our strategy better than we did. They reached by rigorous mathematics the happy conclusion that, in a game between ruthless antagonists, generosity wins."

The Prisoner's Dilemma is a way of studying how individuals choose whether or not to cooperate. In the game, if both players cooperate, they both receive a payoff. If one cooperates and the other does not, the cooperating player receives the smallest possible payoff, and the defecting player the largest. If both players do not cooperate, they receive a payoff, but it is less than what they would gain if both had cooperated. In other words, it pays to cooperate, but it can pay even more to be selfish.

In the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma, two players repeatedly face off against one another and can employ different strategies to beat their opponent. In 2012, Press and Dyson "shocked the world of game theory," Plotkin said, by identifying a group of strategies for playing this version of the game. They called this class of approaches "zero determinant" strategies because the score of one player is related linearly to the other. What's more, they focused on a subset of zero determinant approaches they deemed to be extortion strategies. If a player employed an extortion strategy against an unwitting opponent, that player could force the opponent into receiving a lower score or payoff.

Stewart and Plotkin became intrigued with this finding, and last year wrote a commentary in PNAS about the Press and Dyson work. They began to explore a different approach to the Prisoner's Dilemma.

Instead of a head-to-head competition, they envisioned a population of players matching up against one another, as might occur in a human or animal society in nature. The most successful players would get to "reproduce" more, passing on their strategies to the next generation of players.
It quickly became clear to the Penn biologists that extortion strategies wouldn't do well if played within a large, evolving population because an extortion strategy doesn't succeed if played against itself.

"The fact that there are extortion strategies immediately suggests that, at the other end of the scale, there might also be generous strategies," Stewart said. "You might think being generous would be a stupid thing to do, and it is if there are only two players in the game, but, if there are many players and they all play generously, they all benefit from each other's generosity."

In generous strategies, which are essentially the opposite of extortion strategies, players tend to cooperate with their opponents, but, if they don't, they suffer more than their opponents do over the long term. "Forgiveness" is also a feature of these strategies. A player who encounters a defector may punish the defector a bit but after a time may cooperate with the defector again.

Selfish Strategies Never Succeed In Benefiting Long-Term Populations
Stewart noticed the first of these generous approaches among the zero determinant strategies that Press and Dyson had defined. After simulating how some generous strategies would fare in an evolving population, he and Plotkin crafted a mathematical proof showing that, not only can generous strategies succeed in the evolutionary version of the Prisoner's Dilemma, in fact these are the only approaches that resist defectors over the long term.

"Our paper shows that no selfish strategies will succeed in evolution," Plotkin said. "The only strategies that are evolutionarily robust are generous ones."

The discovery, while abstract, helps explain the presence of generosity in nature, an inclination that can sometimes seem counter to the Darwinian notion of survival of the fittest.

A leader who uses his or her personality to instill people with a personal motivation to cooperate can be more successful than one who relies on so-called "extrinsic" motivations, such as denying them a promotion or raise if they don't work for the group. In these situations, they are just motivated to get around all these negative things and once the penalties are lifted for not cooperating, people are often no longer inspired to do so.

"When people act generously they feel it is almost instinctual, and indeed a large literature in evolutionary psychology shows that people derive happiness from being generous," Plotkin said. "It's not just in humans. Of course social insects behave this way, but even bacteria and viruses share gene products and behave in ways that can't be described as anything but generous."

Previous Cooperative Experience is Key 

A study by researchers at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid and Universidad de Zaragoza has determined that when deciding whether to cooperate with others, people do not act thinking in their own reward, as had been previously believed, but rather individuals are more influenced by their own mood at the time and by the number of individuals with whom they have cooperated before.

After analyzing the information, the main conclusion drawn by the researchers is that in a situation where cooperating with others is beneficial, the way the individuals involved are organized into one social structure or another is irrelevant. A first analysis contradicts what many researchers have held based on theoretical studies.

"A population that encourages cooperation does well," Stewart said. "To maintain cooperation over the long term, it is best to be generous."

Ruling out that network organization influences in the cooperation of people, and having discovered that what is important is reciprocity, that is, cooperating according to cooperation received, will radically change the focus of a significant number of researchers who are developing theories on the emergence of cooperation among individuals.

Michael Forrester is a spiritual counselor and is a practicing motivational speaker for corporations in Japan, Canada and the United States.

Gaia Portal: Grand Portal openings Continue as Higher Vibrationals Step Upward in Frequency



Grand Portal openings Continue as Higher Vibrationals Step Upward in Frequency
by √ČirePort

Grand Portal openings continue as Higher Vibrationals step upward in frequency.

All prior timelines have been erased.

The Grand Portals encompass much increased areas of geographical measure, as well as much increased areas of individual human and Hue-Being effect.

Grand Portals allow necessary Cosmic Upgrades of individual human and Hue-Being and planetary (Gaia) to proceed without restriction.

Further Portal upgrades will continue as necessary.

√ČirePort | September 5, 2013 at 18:35 
URL: http://wp.me/p2sFUY-nZ

Zapiro September 1, 2013


Senators Authorizing Syria Strike Got More Defense Cash Than Lawmakers Voting No


http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2013/09/syria-war-authorization-money/

Senators Authorizing Syria Strike Got More Defense Cash Than Lawmakers Voting No

Senators voting Wednesday to authorize a Syria strike received, on average, 83 percent more campaign financing from defense contractors than lawmakers voting against war.
Overall, political action committees and employees from defense and intelligence firms such as Lockheed Martin, Boeing, United Technologies, Honeywell International, and others ponied up $1,006,887 to the 17 members of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee who voted yes or no on the authorization Wednesday, according to an analysis by Maplight, the Berkeley-based nonprofit that performed the inquiry at WIRED’s request.
Committee members who voted to authorize what the resolution called a “limited” strike averaged $72,850 in defense campaign financing from the pot. Committee members who voted against the resolution averaged $39,770, according to the data.
The analysis of contributions from employees and PACs of defense industry interests ranges from 2007 through 2012 — based on data tracked by OpenSecrets.org.
The authorization must be approved by the full Senate and House.
Among other things, the deal sets a 60-day engagement limit, and bars U.S. ground troops from combat missions. The plan essentially is the legal basis to authorize President Barack Obama topunish Syria for allegedly using chemical weapons, killing some 1,400 people as part of its ongoing civil war.
The top three defense-campaign earners who voted “yes” were Sen. John McCain (R-Arizona) at $176,000; Sen. Dick Durbin (D-Illinois) at $127,350; and Sen. Timothy Kaine (D-Virginia) at $101,025.
The top three defense-campaign earners who voted “no” were Sen. John Barrasso (R-Wyoming) at $86,500; Sen. Marco Rubio (R-Florida) at $62,790; and Sen. Chris Murphy (D-Connecticut) at $59,250.

Six Feet Under






This is a dream, your dream, being dreamt inside of an illusion.



 “It's just a ride. And we can change it any time we want. It's only a choice. No effort, no work, no job, no savings of money; just a simple choice, right now, between fear and love. The eyes of fear want you to put bigger locks on your doors, buy guns, close yourself off. The eyes of love instead see all of us as one.”  (Bill Hicks 1961 – 1994)



We are right now choosing our way, our timeline, our ride; we are walking our talk.  Look at the deepest hidden parts.  The parts you created in this incarnation to get you through it, to carry you right up until this moment now.  This side of the fence has bliss in it, and we are almost there.  These parts, the hidden ones, are parts you don’t quite “get”.  They have been buried. 
  



Six feet under is a good analogy.  It is like they have risen from the dead now, to haunt you. 



In every haunting there is a back story of unfinished business, an incomplete life, something left undone.  This is the same scenario.  Today you deal with what has been swept under the rug, buried, hidden; walked over and invisible as you carried out your life; the life you are living right now.  



Can you look at what holds you back?  What is it that keeps you stuck?  What tender spot are you protecting?  Who are you keeping safe?  What are you not seeing?  What is this terrifying, ugly truth that you will keep hidden at all costs?  What will you not accept?



Here, in a puppet show, is a hideous truth.  It is not for the feint of heart.  It is one of the secrets being kept at all costs.  

This is not something to be afraid of.  It is something to deal with.  There is a choice to be made now, and it is as simple as Bill put it.  It is the choice to love or to live in fear.  

In the US, the Senate committee on foreign relations just approved what they are calling a “limited strike” on Syria.  If you remember, how it works, the Senate now has to vote, as well as a House committee and the House (if it gets that far).  

It doesn’t have to get that far.  We can speak.  We can speak of love.  We can do more than sign a petition or click “like”.  We can tell the truth.  We can tell the “puppets” we elected what it is we expect of them.  We can share what we know. Without being led or following anyone else, we can do this.  A sovereign people speak for themselves.  There is no such thing as a strike that is “limited”.  This is bullying, this is a set up and we know how this works.  It is about a pipeline, it is about money, it is about control. 







What is happening worldwide is a mirror for our internal showdown.  You are being asked to choose.  What will it be?  What are you holding onto that keeps you stuck?  Keeps you here?  Keeps you filled with density, angry, hurt, pre-occupied, _____________ (fill in the blank)?  What do you need to release?

What do you need to see?  What is this really important thing you have a death grip on?  What is it?  Do you see it now?  See yourself holding onto it while the rest are swirling around you – free.  Is it worth that much to you?

This thing, this holding onto thing, is your anchor.  It is your chain.  It is your shackle – it is stopping you from flight. It is not another person.  It is not a situation.  It is something inside; you’ve considered it part of who you are.  

This is that one part of you that you do not see.  It is what you’d call your identity.  You feel it cannot be released because without it “you” would die.  Yet, it is what’s stopping you from living.  

It is not the most important thing.  The most important thing is love.  

You know this.  Life has taught you otherwise, and at some point you decided you’d die holding onto this.  Is it pride?  What will be lost if you let go?

I tell you this.  What is at stake is everything.  You feel now the truth.  There is something you have to do.  Something to face.  Something you fear.  Something that no longer serves you.  Something that no longer serves anyone.

Love it and let it go.  This new world, the one pulling you in, is not waiting.  Its right here and you can only enter unencumbered.  No guilt, no pride, no loss, no judgment.  Only love lives here.

Children know.  Listen.  "Everyone loves them self. Even if you don't want to love yourself you still do in your angel body" (an angel, age 6, a few days ago). Your angel body is already in the new world.  He is pulling you.  Her arms are outstretched.  This is a dream.  Wake up.  Do it. 

You are the One you’ve been waiting for.


Your soul is oftentimes a battlefield, upon which your reason and your judgment wage war against your passion and your appetite.
Would that I could be the peacemaker in your soul, that I might turn the discord and the rivalry of your elements into oneness and melody.
But how shall I, unless you yourselves be also the peacemakers, nay, the lovers of all your elements?


Your reason and your passion are the rudder and the sails of your seafaring soul. If either your sails or your rudder be broken, you can but toss and drift, or else be held at a standstill in mid-seas.
For reason, ruling alone, is a force confining; and passion, unattended, is a flame that burns to its own destruction.
Therefore let your soul exalt your reason to the height of passion, that it may sing;
And let it direct your passion with reason, that your passion may live through its own daily resurrection, and like the phoenix rise above its own ashes.


I would have you consider your judgment and your appetite even as you would two loved guests in your house.
Surely you would not honour one guest above the other; for he who is more mindful of one loses the love and the faith of both.


Among the hills, when you sit in the cool shade of the white poplars, sharing the peace and serenity of distant fields and meadows -- then let your heart say in silence, "God rests in reason."
And when the storm comes, and the mighty wind shakes the forest, and thunder and lightning proclaim the majesty of the sky -- then let your heart say in awe, "God moves in passion."
And since you are a breath in God's sphere, and a leaf in God's forest, you too should rest in reason and move in passion.


On Reason and Passion
 Kahlil Gibran

Project XIII App is in the ITunes App store!


Project XIII is now available for the iPhone in addition to the Windows phone! You can download it via the iTunes App store.  You will need to tell others your Id to talk to friends. But that's just a matter of an email or telephone call.

The app is free for 60 days, and 99 cents a month thereafter to cover network expenses and new development.  I purchased 12 months of subscription, then added another 12 months to that.  The more cash that flows into Caleb the sooner we get voice over IP functionality like Skype has.  I'd really like to dump Skype soon.

This is a really neat little app, seems to work well, but this is the first release and there's more functionality to come in subsequent updates.

PS: It also seems to work just fine on the iPad according to reports.



GEAR TURBINE PROJECT




I was sent this in my email tonight.  I am not a turbine engineer so I can't vouch for the design but I thought was interesting in its use of Ying/Yang concepts....  The video is in Spanish. -Bill


On Sep 4, 2013, at 6:30 PM, Carlos Barrera wrote:

GEARTURBINE PROJECT
Atypical InFlow Thermodynamic
Technology Proposal Submission
Novel Fueled Motor Engine Type

*State of the art Innovative concept Top system Higher efficient percent.
Have similar system of the Aeolipile Heron Steam device from Alexandria 10-70 AD.

YouTube; * Atypical New • GEARTURBINE / Retrodynamic = DextroRPM VS LevoInFlow + Ying Yang Thrust Way Type - Non Waste Looses

*8-X/Y Thermodynamic CYCLE - Way Steps:
1)1-Compression / bigger
2)2-Turbo 1 cold
3)2-Turbo 2 cold
4)2-Combustion - circular motion flames / opposites
5)2-Thrust - single turbo & planetary gears / ying yang
6)2-Turbo 2 hot
7)2-Turbo 1 hot
8)1-Turbine / bigger

-New Form-Function Motor-Engine Device. Next Step, Epic Design Change, Broken-Seal Revelation. -Desirable Power-Plant Innovation.

-With Retrodynamic Dextrogiro vs. Levogiro Phenomenon Effect. / Rotor-RPM VS InFlow / front to front; "Collision-Interaction Type" - inflow vs. blades-gear-move. Technical unique dynamic innovative motion mode. [Retrodynamic Reaction = When the inflow have more velocity the rotor have more RPM Acceleration, with high (XY Position) Momentum] Which the internal flow (and rotor) duplicate its speed, when activated being in a rotor (and inflow) with [inverse] opposite Turns. A very strong Novel concept of torque power thrust.

-Non-waste parasitic looses system for cooling, lubrication & combustion.

-Shape-Mass + Rotary-Motion = Inertia-Dynamic / Form-Function Wide [Flat] Cylindrical shape + positive dynamic rotary mass = continue Inertia kinetic positive tendency motion. Like a Flywheel.

-Combustion 2Two continue circular [Rockets] flames. [ying yang] opposite to the other.
-With 2TWO very long distance INFLOW [inside propulsion] CONDUITS.
-4 TURBOS Rotary Total Thrust-Power Regeneration Power System.
-Mechanical direct 2two [Small] Planetary Gears at polar position.
-Like the Ying Yang Symbol/Concept.
-Wide out the Rotor circumference were have much more lever [HIGH Torque] POWER THRUST. -Military benefits; No blade erosion by sand & very low heat target signature profile.
-3 points of power thrust; 1-flow way, 2-gear, 3-turbine.

*Patent; Dic. 1991 IMPI Mexico #197187 All Rights Reserved. Carlos Barrera.

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